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Glossary of Terms


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Zero budgeting
A budgeting system where all existing activities are assessed and cost justified in the same way as new proposals. The system removes the implied right of existing activities for the continued allocation of resources.

Zero grazing
A system of management where all feed is hauled to the animal which is confined to a yard or shed.

Zoid
Member of a colonial organism.

Zoitcyst
Tissue phase in some of the Isopora group of coccidia. They usually have internal septae and contain thousands of bradyzoites; also called a sarocyst or Miescher's tubule.

Zone line
A narrow dark brown or black line in decayed wood, generally caused by a fungus.

Zoogloea
A growth form (especially Zoogloea ramigera) in which individual cells are enclosed in an extensive slime.

Zoonosis
Disease of animals that is transmissible to humans; some authors subdivide the concept into zooanthroponosis, infections humans can acquire from animals and invertebrates, and anthropozoonosis, a disease of humans transmissible to other animals.

Zooplankton
Animal portion of the plankton; the animal community in marine and fresh-water situations which floats free in the water, independent of the shore and the bottom, moving passively with the currents.

Zoosporangium
A fungus sporangium containing or producing zoospores.

Zo├Ěspore
A fungal spore provided with one or more cilia or flagella capable of independent movement in water.

Zygospore
A sexually produced resting fungal spore of the zygomycetes produced by the fusion of two morphologically similar gametangia.

A thick-walled resting spore produced as the result of sexual reproduction by some phycomycetes.

Zygote
The cell resulting from the fusion of the male and female (haploid) gametes; the fertilised ovum.